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Public Participation Framework

Why Public Participation?

Public participation is a constitutional requirement specifically, Article 1 that states that sovereign power belongs to the people and Article 10 (2) (a) and the Fourth Schedule Part 2 (14) of the Constitution of Kenya and is stipulated as a function of the County Government. Sections 87 to 92 and 115 of the County Governments Act, 2012 outline the principles of public participation and the imperative for facilitating public participation in the work of the County government. Public participation is a structured way of consulting with persons, groups and entities before decisions are made. It is designed to give a voice to the voiceless and cements the concept of agency to the County Government, that is, the County government becomes an agent of the people. Public participation is not meant to convey decisions already made, but to generate and confirm decisions. It is not a political process but a non-partisan process that involves the agent going to ‘take instruction and direction’ from the people.

The Government of Makueni County will seek to utilize the various levels of participation, that is, the government is committed to the promotion of consultation, placation, and partnership and citizen control models of participation. The County government will promote and ensure people-centered and people-driven development as anticipated by the constitution. The government will continuously strive to create an enabling environment for citizens to be involved in and participate in the development of policies from the initial stages. As a result the government adopts the following forms of public participation:

  • Informing the public by providing information to help them understand the issues, options and solutions;
  • Consulting with the public to obtain their feedback on alternatives or decisions;
  • Involving the public to ensure their concerns are considered throughout the decision making process particularly in the development of decision criteria and options;
  • Collaborating with the public to develop decision criteria and alternatives and identify the preferred solutions; and
  • Empowering the public by placing final decision making authority in their hands.

Participation in all forums and development committees is purely voluntary and no benefit whatsoever shall accrue to members because of their engagement.

Public Participation Matrix

Forum Number of Forums Number and Source of Participants Development Committee Representatives How the Forum is Composed and its Working
Village Peoples Forum 3,455 All people from the village to be invited but at least 100 people (one from each household) per village forum

Total =345,500  people County wide

11 members Village Peoples Forum (to hold meetings quarterly) Each village of the approximately 3455 villages will form a forum of its members mobilised at least one (1) per household. The forum shall elect/select a committee of 11 person’s members to form the Village Development Committee and to represent it in the village Cluster forum. The Committee shall meet at least once quarterly.
Village Clusters Peoples Forum 315 143 participants, 11 representatives from each of the 13 villages per cluster


Total  40,045  people County wide

11 members Village Clusters Peoples Forum (to hold meetings once quarterly) There shall exist at least 315 village clusters; 1 cluster consists of approximately 13 villages. The composition of each forum will be the 11 representatives of each village. Persons coming from the cluster, even though not in the village committees, will be eligible to attend. In its first sitting, it shall elect/select eleven (11) members to form the Village Cluster Development Committee. The cluster development committee shall meet at least once quarterly. The representatives at this level from the National and County government will be ex-official members of the forum. The Administrator and a community member shall co-convene and co-moderate the forum.
 Sub-Ward                Peoples Forum 60 53-75 people, 11 representatives from each of the 3-5 village clusters in a Sub-Ward and 20 co-opted representatives of organized groups


Total =3,180 – 4,500 people County wide

11 members Sub-Ward Peoples Forum (to hold meetings bi-annually) There shall exist 60 such fora. They shall have its membership as follows: The Sub-Ward Peoples Forum shall consist of 3-5 village clusters and the 11 members of the village cluster development committees in the Sub-Ward. The representatives of County/National government and the community at these levels shall be conveners/moderators of the forum. The County Government and a community representative at this level shall form the Secretariat for the forum. Members of the Sub-Ward (Village) Advisory Council and the Village Administrator shall be in attendance as ex-officials. (If they are already in place). Every Sub-Ward Forum shall elect an 11 member Sub Ward Development Committee and another ± 15-25 representatives co-opted from the 3-5 village clusters to represent it at the Ward Forum. Regional balancing will be considered in getting the representatives.
 Ward Peoples        Forum 30 72-92 people:

11 from the 2 sub-wards

15-25 co-opted from each of the village clusters

20 organized groups representatives


Total=2,160-2,760 people county wide

11 members from 2 sub wards


Ward Peoples Forum (to hold meetings bi-annually) There shall be a Ward Peoples Forum consisting of ± 72-92 members from the two Sub-Wards in a Ward. Its membership shall be as follows:

  • 1 members  from each sub ward
  • At least 15 members co-opted from each  of the sub ward
  • 10 members from each of the organised groups in each sub ward.

Elected leaders at this level, the Ward (village) Administrators shall be in attendance as ex-officials; the respective County government official shall nominate one persons from each of the 10 organized groups to attend the forum. Every ward forum shall elect an 11 member ward development Committee that will represent the Ward at the Sub County Peoples Forum. The County Government representative (Ward Administrator) together with a community representative shall be in-charge of the secretariat.


Peoples Forum

6 53-97 people,11 from each ward and 20 representatives of organized groups

Total =318-582 people county wide

11 Members Sub-County Peoples Forum – (bi-annually) There shall be Sub-County Peoples Forum in each of the six Sub-Counties. This shall consist of eleven (11) persons elected from the Ward Development Committee members and 20 people nominated to the forum by the Sub County Administration.
County Peoples Forum 1 1,000 people, 11 from each of the 60 Sub-Wards and 10 representatives of each of the organized groups and 140 government officials. 660 Members of Sub Ward Development Committees The County Peoples Forum shall consist of: the 11 members from each Sub-Ward Development Committees, 140 county government officers and participants in the forum shall nominate 10 persons in each of the 10 organized groups per sub ward to attend the forum; The forum will have the respective County government official (County Secretary) and a representative of the community will run as the secretariat. The County Peoples Forum shall be co-chaired by the County Budget and Economic Forum (CBEF) and a representative of the community. The Governor and the Deputy Governor shall also co-chair the forum. Other elected leaders at this level shall be in attendance. The forum shall convene once annually.
Grand Total Target Participants 3,488 355,734 to 357,918 55  


The following are the organized groups from which all nominations shall be done:

  1. Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT)
  2. Kenya Union of Post Primary Education Teachers (KUPPET)
  3. Kenya Secondary School Head Teachers Association  (KESSHA)
  4. Kenya Primary School Head Teachers Association (KEPSHA)
  5. Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization (MYWO)
  6. National Youth Council (NYC)
  7. Established Community Based Organizations (CBOs)
  8. Kenya National Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KNCCI)-County Chapter representatives
  9. Hawkers representatives
  10. Faith Based Organizations (FBOs):
    1. Roman Catholic Church representative;
    2. National Council of Churches of Kenya (NCCK);
    3. Makueni County Pastors Foundation;
    4. Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims (SUPKEM);
    5. Hindu Council;
    6. Sikh Council; and
    7. African Religion and any other.
  11. Farmers groups representatives
  12. Boda boda groups
  13. Most Affected Persons (MAPS)
  14. Professionals in the Diaspora
  15. People with Special Needs (PWSN)
  16. Children representative
  17. Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs)
  18. Town committees
  19. Project Management Committee (PMC) representatives
  20. Minority and marginalized groups.

NB: All the groups to be represented where applicable.

The Impact and Sustainability of the Public Participation Framework

  • Social Impact

Public participation helps in alleviating social conflicts by bringing different stakeholders and interest groups. Investment in public participation helps minimize

Both the number and magnitude of social conflict arising over the course of implementation of policies, laws and development plans.

  • Economic Impact

An enlightened citizen will effectively participate in development process hence influence decision making process which will impact on their livelihoods.

Public Participation in Governance Structure